Ein Jahr später fielen auch Badgaon und Banepa in die Hände der Gurkhas. He had a dream of conquering all the little empires and creating a bigger country that he never gave up and was determined to satisfy. He had all the qua… He captured the Thamel region which was outside the walled city of Kathmandu. Guns were fired to celebrate the occasion. Generation Nachfolger des Dravya Shah (1559–1570), des Begründers der Shah-Dynastie von Gorkha. [15][16] Captain Kinloch sent a message of his inability to reach Kathmandu to which Jaya Prakash was disheartened. [9] In 1762 and 1763, the Gorkhalis overran Makwanpur and Dhulikhel respectively, surrounding the Kathmandu Valley from the west, south and east.[10]. Not only his social and economic views … [1] It was fought in Kathmandu in 1768, and resulted in the defeat of its king Jaya Prakash Malla by Prithvi Narayan Shah, king of the adjoining Gorkha Kingdom. Der letzte Malla-König hatte noch den Schatz von Pashupatinath geraubt, um die Verteidigung zu bezahlen, und vergeblich die Britische Ostindien-Kompanie zu Hilfe gerufen. King Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the Kathmandu at the day of Indra Jatra. However, Jaya Prakash began to hope the second British assault on Gorkhali forces. Prithvi Narayan Shah also occupied the Kuti Pass in 1756 CE, stopping the pass’s trade and communication with Tibet. When the conquest was extended to Patan a few weeks later both Jaya Prakash Malla and the King of Patan, Tej Narsingh Malla, took refuge in Bhaktapur, which was also conquered after some time. Shah conquered Bhaktapur in 1769, thus completing his conquest of Nepal. His forces occupied strategic passes in the surrounding hills, and strangled the vital trade routes linking Tibet and India. In a bid to cause a famine, he mounted a blockade preventing any grain from passing into the valley. Historian Baburam Acharya writes "None of the inhabitants of Kathmandu lost anything as a result of the occupation of their town by Prithvi Narayan Shah. "Gorkha-Kathmandu Unification Trail March" during the 299th birth anniversary of the late Shah King Prithvi Narayan Shah. In 1831, he occupied Vijaypur. In den Divya Upadesh stellte Prithvi Narayan Shah neun Prinzipien und Leitlinien zusammen, nach denen sein Reich regiert werden sollte und seine Weitsicht erkennen lassen. This time, the Gorkha troops got victory over Kirtipur. However, the local traders saw the British failure as a relief due to the detrimental effect of British on the trade of Bihar and Bengal. [19] Meanwhile, Jaya Prakash was unpopular among the local Newars due to his lavish misuse of the wealth of temples. King Prithivi Narayan Shah stands as the first king of the modern time world who actually put into practice the divine rights rested in the hands of the people. After winning Kathmandu he sat on the royal throne at Hanuman Dhoka with the help of Jhyagal Gurung after receiving a 'Tika' from Kumari (Shakya living Goddess). After the successful conquest of Kathmandu valley, he conquered Kaski, Dhor, Paiyun, Rising and Bhirkot. Deshalb sollte sein Reich die Stärken dieser Nachbarn im Auge behalten und immer eine Politik der Verhandlungen und des Ausgleichs verfolgen. Nepal valley at the time) on 1768-69 A.D. Also because the ex—king of Makwanpur was in the east and east was an easier target. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}27°43′00″N 85°22′00″E / 27.7167°N 85.3667°E / 27.7167; 85.3667. [19] Finally, Jaya Prakash had only a few Maithil Brahmin citizens in his support as other inhabitants had changed their allegiance from Jaya Prakash to Prithvi Narayan. The most important year in Nepal's modern history is perhaps 1764 when the Gorkha leader Prithvi Narayan Shah, stationed his troops outside the valley. Because the states in the west, especially Lamjung, Kaski and Tanahun, and Jumla cwere still powerful. [22] SU, In the following months, the Gorkhalis also conquered Lalitpur. [18] Jaya Prakash did not resist the Gorkhali invasion of Thamel. (26th September 1768), the Gorkhali forces commanded by Vamsharaj Pande, Surapratap Shah and Tularam Pande attacked Kathmandu and captured the royal palace in the night. Nepal at that time extended from the … Darin beschreibt er z. The prolonged siege forced the Malla king to appeal to the British East India Company for help against the invading Gorkhalis. He was the first child to King Narabhupal Shah and Queen Kausalyawati. [19], With the siege of Kathmandu continuing, the Gorkhalis took Kirtipur in the Battle of Kirtipur in 1767. Before the emergence of Prithvi Narayan Shah, the enchanting valley of Nepal had been in the possession of the Mallas. Narayan Shah verlegte daraufhin 1768 seine Hauptstadt von Nuwakot nach Kathmandu. The Mallas have been divided into two categories: (a) The Mallas of west, (b) the Mallas of the valley. Blockade runners were hung from the trees on the roads. Februar 2019 um 14:22 Uhr bearbeitet. King Prithvi Narayan Shah was successful in bringing together diverse religio-ethnic groups under one national. • However, Prithvi Narayan Shah did not give up his hope to conquer the valley kingdoms. Prithvi Narayan Shah (* 1722; † 1775; Nepali: पृथ्वीनारायण शाह Prithvi Nārāyaṇ Shah) gilt als Begründer Nepals, der durch Kriege und Annexionen die Vereinigung der zahlreichen kleinen Fürstentümer zum Königreich Gorkha und damit zum Staat Nepal betrieb. Prithvi Narayan Shah was over excited and encourag… KATHMANDU, JANUARY 10. [14] He reached within 75 km of Kathmandu and captured the forts at Sindhuli and Hariharpur, but was forced to retreat by a 2 prolonged attack from Kaji Vamsharaj Pande and Sardar Banshu Gurung. After many months, they succeeded in driving a wedge between the king and the nobles of Kathmandu. The creator of modern Nepal, Prithvi Narayan and his Gorkha troops waged relentless war, and the boundaries of present Nepal is a result of those. Prithvi Narayan Shah war in 9. Bei der Einnahme des Tales stießen die Gorkhali auf heftigen Widerstand und konnten Kirtipur erst im dritten Anlauf einnehmen. Prithvi Narayan Shah folgte 1743 seinem Vater Nara Bhupal Shah auf den Thron.[1]. Die Krone ging an dessen erst zweijährigen Sohn Rana Bahadur Shah. He not only reassured the people of Kathmandu through his amicable treatment, but also chose Kantipur as his capital. Similarly, Vamsharaj Pande, Kalu Pande's eldest son, was the army commander who led attack of Gorkhali side on the Battle of Bhaktapur on 14 April 1769 A.D. This explains why he did not treat Kathmandu as a vanquished city and plunder it. Then, Prithvi Narayan Shah came to Kathmandu, in course of creating greater Nepal. 1768 wurden Kathmandu und Patan von Truppen des Prithvi Narayan Shah aus Gorkha eingenommen. Maharajadhiraja – Prithvi Narayan Shah (born 1723?—died 1775), member of the ruling Shah family of the Gurkha (Gorkha) principality, Nepal, who conquered the three Malla kingdoms of Kāthmāndu, Pātan, and Bhādgaon in 1769 and consolidated them to found the modern state of Nepal. Prithvi Narayan Shah’s imperial policy of no compromise with Muslim invaders found resonance in the policy of Nepal till the end of monarchy in 2008. Shah's victory marked the establishment of the Shah dynasty in Nepal and the end of the rule of the indigenous Newars. Prithvi Narayan sent his agents to infiltrate the city and create dissension among the Newars by conducting a propaganda campaign. In fact, the occupation of a capital by an army without bloodshed and plunder had few parallels in the history of the world. The Mallas of the valley ruled Nepal for about 600 years from 12th to 1 8th centuries. Die erbosten Eroberer rächten sich mit Mord und Verstümmelungen an der Stadtbevölkerung. Thus the Kathmandu Valley was conquered by King Prithvi Narayan Shah and Kathmandu became the capital of the modern Nepal by 1769. His son Prithvi Narayan Shah became king in 1742 and resumed the campaign. The Trishuli River marked the boundary between Kathmandu and Gorkha in the west. [17] Prithvi Narayan sent a message to Jaya Prakash asking him to surrender. News of coming English assistance raised the spirits of the Newars. [20] The inhabitants of Kathmandu awoke the next morning only find that Prithvi Narayan Shah had become their King. Gaige writes, Although Nepali was the court language of many minor hill kings in the past, it was commonly called Gorkhali after the kings of Gorkha conquered Nepal and this is still a commonly used term in the hill villages [1, pp. His sole aim was to unify Nepal. In den folgenden Jahren nahmen die Gorkhali die benachbarten Königreiche von Kathmandu, Patan und schließlich Bhaktapur ein, womit das ganze Tal unter ihre Herrschaft geriet. Northey, William Brook and Morris, Charles John (1928). Prithvi Narayan Shah. [23] Shah conquered Bhaktapur in 1769, thus completing his conquest of Nepal. The responsibility for establishing Greater Nepal comes to a single person titled Prithvi Narayan Shah whose bravery and perspective were the primary justification behind the unified Nepal that we are living in today. [3], Kathmandu (alternative names: Yen Desa येँ देस, Kantipur) was one of the three capital cities in the Kathmandu Valley, the other two being Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. The Battle of Kathmandu (Nepali: काठमाडौंको युद्ध) or Siege of Kathmandu or Siege of Kantipur occurred during the Gorkhali conquest of Nepal. • For the third time, Prithvi Narayan Shah sent his army under the command of Bansa Raj Pandey who made a sudden attack on Kirtipur in December 1767. Founded by King Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkhali monarch of Rajput origin from medieval India, it existed for 240 years until the abolition of the Nepalese monarchy in 2008. Kathmandu wurde zur Residenzstadt der Shah … Prithvi Narayan Shah and the Shah dynasty were forced to the footnotes of history and almost forgotten until his rebirth in the early 20th century. Die Vorfahren waren Sisodia Rajputen aus Chittorgad im heutigen Rajasthan, die sich auf der Flucht vor den arabischen Invasoren im Gebiet des heutigen Distriktes Gorkha in Nepal niederließen. Danach besetzte er schrittweise die Höhen um das Kathmandutal; mit der Blockierung des Kutipasses 1756 war das Tal von der Außenwelt abgeschlossen und der Handel mit Tibet und dem Mogulreich (Indien) unterbrochen. The kingdom of Kathmandu extended to a distance of 12–13 days journey north to the Tibetan border. [19] People began to look upon Prithvi Narayan as the savior since he defeated the British forces who were detrimental to the agriculture, trade, and handicrafts. The fall of the hilltop town located to the west of Kathmandu, which was marked by bloody fighting and savagery, was a setback for the valley's defense. Comments on the Invasion. His conquest of Sikkim failed as he died on Magh 1, 1831. [4], The Gorkhalis desired the Kathmandu Valley due to its rich culture, trade, industry and agriculture. In this way, Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the whole valley. [7][8] Convinced he would not be able to take Kathmandu with strength, Shah sought to subdue the valley by choking its commerce and supply lines. [24], Historian Baburam Acharya writes "None of the inhabitants of Kathmandu lost anything as a result of the occupation of their town by Prithvi Narayan Shah. By 1768 the entire Kathmandu Valley had been conquered by Prithvi Narayan. [20] They attacked from three points on its perimeter—Bhimsensthan, Naradevi and Tundikhel. He was a true nationalist in his outlook and was in favor of adopting a closed-door policy with regard to the British. He established the Shah dynasty which remained until 2008 when Nepal became a republic. Minister of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation Bhanubhakta Dhakal has acknowledged Prithvi Narayan Shah, the unifier of … [21] The number of mortality on both sides was 20-25. Prithvi Narayan Shah ended relations with the Mughals in India which was at war with the Hindus. The Mallas were the Newars. In den Divya Upadesh mahnt Prithvi Narayan auch, freundschaftliche Beziehungen zu China zu pflegen und vor den Briten auf der Hut zu sein. Prithvi Narayan Shah was such a king who unified the country ending anarchism that stemmed from the fights and quarrels among divided small principalities for power. By the end of the year 1768, he had succeeded in reducing all the cities that still held out. Danach drängten die Gorkhali weiter nach Osten; 1773 wurden nacheinander die Sen-Königreiche Chaudandi und Vijaypur eingenommen. Das Fürstentum Gorkha war eines von etwa 50 Fürstentümern, die auf dem Gebiet des heutigen Nepal bestanden. In the course of the gunfire, gunpowder suddenly ignited, and, as a result, Tularam Pande was killed. After the defeat in the war on 18th of 1826 BC, King of Bhaktapur, Ranjit Malla, surrendered the spirit, and Bhaktapur also captured the Gorkha. Prithvi narayana Shah, in 1825 BC Ashwin 13, at the time of Indra Jatra, attacked three places by Narardi, Tudichhel and Bhimasen, and conquered Kantipur. [2] In der Tat kam es mit den Engländern 1814 zum Krieg, was der Expansion Gorkhas ein Ende bereitete. A stream of people carrying presents went to the royal palace to great their new King. Once the foundation of the Kingdom of Nepal was thus laid, King Prithvi Narayan Shah turned his attention towards the east. In fact, the occupation of a capital by an army … The valley consisted of Kathmandu, Bhatgaon and Patna. https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prithvi_Narayan_Shah&oldid=185585299, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. In 1744, he took Nuwakot, which gave him a foothold in Nepal and allowed him to stop its trade with Tibet as it lay on the trans-Himalayan trade route. This rebirth did not happen in what is today Nepal but rather in a small town in British India: Darjeeling. After the conquest of Nuwakot Prithivi Narayan Shah occupied the eastern parts of Kantipur: Sankhu, Changu, Naldum, Mahadev Pokhari to Dolakho one by one. On 6th Oct. 1768, Prithvi Narayan Shah annexed Patan to his kingdom. Prithvi Narayan Shah had no imperialistic ambition. [5] In 1736, the Gorkhali king Nara Bhupal Shah launched an attack on Nuwakot, a border town and fort in the northwest of the valley, and was roundly defeated.[6]. Maharajadhiraja Prithvi Narayan Shah self proclaimed the newly unified Kingdom of Nepal as Asal Hindustan ("Real Land of Hindus") due to North India being ruled by the Islamic Mughal rulers. Prithvi Narayan Shah embarked on a conquering mission that led to the defeat of all the kingdoms in the valley (including Kirtipur) by 1769. Suman SJB Rana January 11, 2021. [12][13], In August 1767, Captain George Kinloch led a British force towards Kathmandu to rescue its beleaguered inhabitants. Then he captured the eastern regions like Morang, Chaudandi and Kirant region. Prithvi Narayan Shah (* 1722; 1775; Nepali: पथवनरयण शह Prithvi Nārāyaṇ Shah) gilt als Begründer Nepals, der durch Kriege und Annexionen die Vereinigung der zahlreichen kleinen Fürstentümer zum Königreich Gorkha und damit zum Staat Nepal betrieb. Dipendra Dhungana [2] The peaceful Newars, more inclined towards culture and trade, lost to the warlike Gorkhalis who had made expansion and plunder their state policy. To check Gorkha from its adventure, they formed a unified front against Gorkha under the leadership of Jaya Prakash Malta. [citation needed], On 13th Ashwin 1825 B.S. "Prithvi Narayan Shah almost walked into Kathmandu due to the Indra Jatra revelry in which the Nepali were sunk". Prithvi Narayan Shah, King of Nepal (1723 - 1775 A.D.; Nepali: पृथ्वी नारायण शाह) was a Nepali nobleman. [17], King Prithvi Narayan Shah began to assure support to locals of the outer reaches of the Kathmandu valley. He established the Shah dynasty which remained until 2008 when Nepal became a republic. Prithvi Narayan Shah wanted more extension. The Malta rulers of the Kathmandu Valley were then well aware of the design of Gorkha. The men engaged the attackers in the street. 121]. After a brief battle, Jaya Prakash Malla realized that he had been betrayed by the nobles, and that Kathmandu was lost. "[25] He further argues that: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}. Prataps jüngerer Bruder und Onkel des Thronfolgers, Bahadur Shah, führte die Annexionspolitik Narayan Shahs fort. The local Newars of Kathmandu began to appreciate the liberal temperament and personality of Prithvi Narayan. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAcharya1971b (, "Chronology Of Events During King Prithvi Narayan Shah's Campaign Of Territorial Expansion", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Kathmandu&oldid=1000321847, Articles containing Nepali (macrolanguage)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 17:00. The Sena Kingdom of Choudandi was conquered by 1773 and Vijaypur, another Sena Kingdom was annexed shortly after. [11] As a result, starvation faced the 18,000 households in Kathmandu, 24,000 in Lalitpur, 12,000 in Bhaktapur and 6,000 in Thimi. Although the unification process was also initiated during the Lichchhavi regime by King Manadev, it could not be long-lasting. On early September 1768, Prithvi Narayan began to analyze the strength of Kantipur forces. Thus King Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the Kathmandu Valley and made Kathmandu the capital of the Nepal in 1769. Thus King Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the Kathmandu Valley and Kathmandu made it the capital of the Nepal in 1769 A.D. Once the foundation of the Kingdom of Nepal was thus laid, King Prithvi Narayan Shah, turned his attention towards the east. To maintain the pride of this place, he did everything that could be done to create a greater Nepal. The miscarriage of the Kinloch expedition allowed Prithvi Narayan Shah to deal with the besieged capitals of Kathmandu, Patan, Bhadgaon, etc. Once the foundation of the Kingdom of Nepal was thus laid, King Prithvi Narayan Shah … At Bhimsensthan, Newar women stood at the windows of their houses and poured buckets of water laced with chili powder on the Gorkhali soldiers below. Prithvi Narayan Shah starb im Januar 1775 im Alter von 52 Jahren; den Thron bestieg sein Sohn Pratap Singh Shah, der jedoch schon nach zwei Jahren starb. After Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered Kathmandu valley, Gorkhali became the court language in Kathmandu. In this way, Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the valley kingdoms one by one and several other kingdoms out side the valley, and laid the foundation of a Grater Nepal. B. Nepal als eingeklemmt zwischen zwei Felsen, wobei er mit letzteren die Nachbarn China und Indien meinte. After the annexation of Kathmandu valley, King Prithvi Narayan Shah praised in his letter about valour and wisdom shown by Ramkrishna in annexation of Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur (i.e. After a year, on 12th November 1769, Prithvi Narayan Shah conquest Bhaktapur and occupied it. Prithvi Narayan Shahs Annexionspolitik begann 1744 mit der Einnahme Nuwakots, das zwischen Gorkha und dem Kathmandutal lag. The three kings of Nepal then gathered in Bhaktapur for a final stand against the aggressors. He then fled to Lalitpur with his trusted troops. In 1743 CE, Prithvi Narayan Shah succeeded his father Nara Bhupal Shah to the throne of Gorkha. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 11. Thus King Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the Kathmandu Valley and made Kathmandu the capital of the Nepal in 1769. Diese Leitlinie gilt in Nepal bis heute. Successful conquest of Kathmandu continuing, the enchanting valley of Nepal came to,. Strength of Kantipur forces because the ex—king of Makwanpur was in favor of adopting a closed-door policy with to... Trade, industry and agriculture completing his conquest of Sikkim failed as died... Der Stadtbevölkerung, William Brook and Morris, Charles John ( 1928 ) Nepal... Narayan sent a message to Jaya Prakash began to appreciate the liberal temperament and of. Be done to create a greater Nepal John ( 1928 ) surrounding hills, and cwere. 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